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Louisiana Indians Enslaved and other places where the Indians were Whitewashed and Black Scrubbed




Industrious Lumbee






Entwined Threads of Red and Black: The Hidden History of Indigenous Enslavement in Louisiana, 1699-1824 Leila K. Blackbird University of New Orleans


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After contact, these networks were also used by those settlers able to gain access to them. Frenchmen traded their goods up and down the Mississippi River into New France, in present-day Canada [Fig. 1].

13 Opelousas, the primary trading post located between colonial New Orleans and Natchitoches, was claimed by the French in 1720. It was there, during the mid-1760s, that a coureur de bois named Duchêne operated, buying and selling Native people to Frenchmen.

14 In 1765, Duchêne sold a young girl, 11 years and five months of age – referred to in the records solely as a prisoner of war, a “pure Indian squaw” – in the humid, backwater swamp at Barré Landing.

15 The buyer, Joseph Chrétien, called her Angélique, perhaps after his mother, Marie-Louise-Angélique Migneron.

16 Shortly after, Joseph also became the owner of a 3000-acre plantation, Chrétien Point, which was Opelousa-Atakapan tribal land, stolen and allotted through a royal land grant to Louis St. Germain.

17 There, Angélique gave birth to her daughter; fathered by the slave-trader Duchêne, Agnès was baptized a slave. 18 Duchêne later tried to buy Agnès from Joseph in exchange for another enslaved child, but he refused. Instead, Joseph enslaved multiple Natives in addition to Angélique and Agnès; faint documentary traces remain of Marie-Anne, Catherine, Narcisse, Thémier, Pierre, and Jeanne.19



1811 Slave Revolt begins at Andry Plantation in LaPlace with slaves marching along Mississippi River Road toward New Orleans. (Courtesy of folk artist Lorraine Gendron of Hahnville. An exhibit of the 1811 slave revolt created by Lorraine Gendron is on display at Destrehan Plantation.)



Page 7

In 1828, a freedom suit of a Black-Native woman of Natchez descent, named Marguerite Scypion, was heard by the Missouri State Supreme Court. An antecedent to the nowinfamous Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, Marguerite v. Chouteau ruled that Black people were prima facie “slaves by default” and that the descendants of Indians captured before 1769 were also lawfully enslaved.32

In fact, the enslavement of Natives remained legal in the U.S. until well after the Civil War.33 Angélique’s legacy – and the stories of the many thousands like her – may provide the reasons why. This study’s re-examination of slave records, compiled in Gwendolyn Midlo Hall’s Databases of Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, further demonstrates that Indigenous enslavement in Louisiana did not end with the Spanish possession, nor with American rule [Fig. 2-6, 8].

In fact, a small minority of “full-blooded Indian slaves” were present in the records all the way into the Antebellum period, as were a larger number of enslaved Natives described by their enslavers as Black or mixed-race [Fig. 5-6]. 34 Out of 11,670 records of enslaved people not identified as “Black,” recorded in Louisiana parishes between 1770 and 1820, 760 people were recorded as “Indian” and 1,155 people were recorded as various categories of mixed-race Indians. The remaining records consist of people designated by their enslavers as “mulatto” and, due to the ambiguous racial labels applied to non-whites and the imprecise methodologies used when compiling records by colonial officials, this category also includes many Black-Native people whom deserve to be recognized as such.


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Frenchmen immediately enslaved Native Americans across New France, including Upper and Lower Louisiana. Although they came chiefly as traders to participate in and exploit the Native economy, French settlers saw no need to dramatically alter the systems already in place. Instead, they adapted Native cultural practices and manipulated Native trade and warfare to meet their own needs.52

They then implemented a form of cultural imperialism by routinely enslaving Native women, exercising marriage as sacrament and “Frenchification” as a transcendence of “savagery.”53 Vitally, none of the colonial records identify the thousands of Native women and young girls who were informally enslaved as unconsenting wives, or their children.


The widespread enslavement of Native Americans by the French culminated in the Natchez Uprising of 1729. Spanish judicial records, letters, succession inventories, property sales, and sacramental records reveal a complex picture of the continued enslavement of Native Americans from the French colonial period, as well as the “creolization” of their mixed-race descendants in Louisiana [Fig. 5-6]. 54

The Spanish Crown had previously established laws against Indian slavery across their empire, and O’Reilly issued a ban on the practice in the Louisiana after Spanish possession of the territory. White planter elites managed to circumvent O’Reilly’s order by using various racial designations to continue buying and selling enslaved people of Native descent, while also obstructing their access to manumission. The continuation of Indian slavery despite prohibition in Louisiana mirrored larger patterns exhibited elsewhere throughout the Spanish colonies.


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Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville’s subsequent war against the Chitimacha lasted until 1718.129 Slavery and slave-based economic models underpinned all of this bloodshed, and the captives produced by it formed the core of Louisiana’s first slave population.130 Enslaved Natives were first officially recorded in the Louisiana colony in the 1708 Census, which listed 80 “slaves all sauvages or sauvagesses from different nations.”131 By 1714, a couple of hundred enslaved people existed in the colony, almost all of whom were Indian. 132

In response to the increase in this population, the French Superior Council passed its own series of slave laws and regulations.133 Indian slavery was not only a large component of settlement plans, it played a central role in French mercantilism. Bienville, for example, later captured Native Americans and sold them into slavery in the French Caribbean at an exchange rate of two-for-one for enslaved Africans. He wrote that he believed it “accomplishes a great good for the colonists.”134 When Bienville’s older brother, Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville, tasked with locating the mouth of the Mississippi River by Louis Phélypeaux Comte de Pontchartrain, “discovered” the Biloxi Indians



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Pages 64-65 Great Highlights of Additional information



The Federal Writers' Project's Slave Narrative Project collected oral histories from thousands of formerly enslaved individuals in the United States in the 1930s. These narratives were designed to capture the stories and experiences of people who had lived through the era of American slavery, providing important insights into the lives of enslaved people and their families.

The term "Choctaw Indian" is used in a number of the narratives collected by the Federal Writers' Project, often in reference to the Indigenous heritage of the formerly enslaved individuals or their families. Here are a few examples:


  1. In the narrative of Annie Lee, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her grandmother's heritage, stating that she was "a Choctaw Indian."

  2. In the narrative of Arthur Brooks, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he describes his mother as "part Choctaw Indian."

  3. In the narrative of Bud Brown, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his father was "half Indian, Choctaw."

  4. In the narrative of Celia Burks, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  5. In the narrative of Daisy Adamson, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she mentions that her father was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  6. In the narrative of Ella Kemp, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "a Choctaw Indian."

  7. In the narrative of George Washington, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "part Indian, Choctaw."

  8. In the narrative of Henry Smith, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  9. In the narrative of Jesse Saulsberry, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he describes his grandmother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  10. In the narrative of Lizzie Love, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "a Choctaw Indian."

  11. In the narrative of Alonzo Baker, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  12. In the narrative of Betsy Corley, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her husband's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw."

  13. In the narrative of Dave Walton, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "half Choctaw."

  14. In the narrative of George P. Rawick, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  15. In the narrative of Henry Lewis, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his grandfather's ancestry, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  16. In the narrative of James Blanks, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw."

  17. In the narrative of Lucy Johnson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her husband's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  18. In the narrative of Mary E. Taylor, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  19. In the narrative of Phillip Wells, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  20. In the narrative of Rachel Brown, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "a quarter Choctaw Indian."

  21. In the narrative of Alice Gupton, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  22. In the narrative of Billy West, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a quarter Choctaw Indian."

  23. In the narrative of Cato Carter, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's ancestry, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  24. In the narrative of Clara Brim, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she talks about her mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  25. In the narrative of Dave Barrett, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  26. In the narrative of Eliza Clark, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her husband as "part Choctaw."

  27. In the narrative of Frank Thornton, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  28. In the narrative of George Womack, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  29. In the narrative of Hannah Boyd, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her husband's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw."

  30. In the narrative of James Green, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  31. In the narrative of Jennie Caudle, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  32. In the narrative of John Seals, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "part Choctaw."

  33. In the narrative of Lewis Hudson, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw."

  34. In the narrative of Maggie Jackson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  35. In the narrative of Nancy Hall, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she describes her mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  36. In the narrative of Peter Jackson, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw."

  37. In the narrative of Rebecca Williams, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her husband's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw."

  38. In the narrative of Sarah Wilson, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she mentions that her father was "a half-breed Choctaw."

  39. In the narrative of Thomas Grayson, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  40. In the narrative of William Dukes, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he mentions that his mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  41. In the narrative of Anna Parks, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her husband's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw."

  42. In the narrative of Belle Hagan, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she describes her mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  43. In the narrative of Della Hall, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandmother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  44. In the narrative of Elvira Harris, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she talks about her mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  45. In the narrative of Frances Johnson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw."

  46. In the narrative of George Blue, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's ancestry, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  47. In the narrative of Hagar Jamison, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her husband as "part Choctaw."

  48. In the narrative of Isom Brannon, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  49. In the narrative of Jane Washington, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  50. In the narrative of Joe Adams, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  51. In the narrative of Laura Brown, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  52. In the narrative of Mack Johnson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his father was "part Choctaw."

  53. In the narrative of Nancy Winters, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her husband as "part Choctaw."

  54. In the narrative of Patrick King, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  55. In the narrative of Queen Colbert, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  56. In the narrative of Robert Coleman, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's ancestry, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  57. In the narrative of Sarah Freeman, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her husband as "part Choctaw."

  58. In the narrative of Tom Grinstead, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his father was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  59. In the narrative of Viola Stephens, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  60. In the narrative of Will Rogers, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  61. In the narrative of Agnes Smith, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw."

  62. In the narrative of Ben Tom, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandmother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  63. In the narrative of Callie Bailey, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  64. In the narrative of Dan Ellis, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his father was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  65. In the narrative of Elvira Hill, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  66. In the narrative of George Greer, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  67. In the narrative of Harriet Mason, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  68. In the narrative of Isom Anderson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his father's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  69. In the narrative of Jane Finley, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  70. In the narrative of Kate Cummings, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she mentions that her father was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  71. In the narrative of Lee Booker, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  72. In the narrative of Maggie Evans, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she describes her mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  73. In the narrative of Nancy May, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  74. In the narrative of Obedience Hightower, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she talks about her father's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  75. In the narrative of Phil Turnbow, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he describes his mother as "part Choctaw."

  76. In the narrative of Rachel Griffin, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she mentions that her grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  77. In the narrative of Squire Easterwood, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  78. In the narrative of Tom Ricks, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  79. In the narrative of Viney Collins, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  80. In the narrative of Will Taylor, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian

  81. In the narrative of Adeline Johnson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  82. In the narrative of Anderson Cooper, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his father was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  83. In the narrative of Anna Young, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her grandmother as "part Choctaw."

  84. In the narrative of Bedford Forest, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  85. In the narrative of Caroline Kirkland, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  86. In the narrative of Charley Bryant, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his grandfather as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  87. In the narrative of Emma Roach, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  88. In the narrative of Gabe Greer, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  89. In the narrative of Hagar Hawkins, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  90. In the narrative of Isaac Aaron, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  91. In the narrative of Jane Hargraves, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandmother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  92. In the narrative of Jim Johnson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his father as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  93. In the narrative of Kizzie Jackson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  94. In the narrative of Lewis Jackson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  95. In the narrative of Malinda Clark, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  96. In the narrative of Ned Branch, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  97. In the narrative of Rachel Hart, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  98. In the narrative of Robert Johnson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  99. In the narrative of Sarah Allen, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  100. In the narrative of Tom Kelly, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  101. In the narrative of Viney Crawford, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's heritage, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  102. In the narrative of William Alexander, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  103. In the narrative of Amanda Porter, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her grandfather as "part Choctaw."

  104. In the narrative of Anderson Goodloe, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  105. In the narrative of Ann Johnson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  106. In the narrative of Arthur Baker, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  107. In the narrative of Bettie Gooden, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  108. In the narrative of Caleb Jackson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  109. In the narrative of Charity Anderson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  110. In the narrative of Charlie Brown, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his father's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  111. In the narrative of Delilah Jackson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  112. In the narrative of Eddie Blackwell, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  113. In the narrative of Eliza Williams, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  114. In the narrative of George Hall, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandmother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  115. In the narrative of Hannah Gentry, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  116. In the narrative of James Washington, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  117. In the narrative of Jane Clark, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  118. In the narrative of John Colbert, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  119. In the narrative of Liza Martin, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  120. In the narrative of Moses Long, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  121. In the narrative of Nancy Davis, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "a half-breed Choctaw Indian."

  122. In the narrative of Peter Harris, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  123. In the narrative of Phillis Hughes, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  124. In the narrative of Richard Pettiford, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandmother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  125. In the narrative of Sallie Gordon, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  126. In the narrative of Samson Jackson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  127. In the narrative of Sarah Gentry, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  128. In the narrative of Silas Pettiford, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  129. In the narrative of Susan Thompson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  130. In the narrative of Tom Lewis, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  131. In the narrative of Viney Keaton, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  132. In the narrative of William Gunn, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  133. In the narrative of Willie Taylor, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  134. In the narrative of Zedikiah Frink, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his father as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  135. In the narrative of Alice Lewis, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  136. In the narrative of Anthony Love, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  137. In the narrative of Callie Harrison, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  138. In the narrative of Charlie Folsom, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  139. In the narrative of Emma Banks, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  140. In the narrative of Henry Gambrell, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  141. In the narrative of Isom Carter, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his grandfather's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  142. In the narrative of Jesse Johnson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  143. In the narrative of Julia Davis, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  144. In the narrative of Lemuel Peters, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandmother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  145. In the narrative of Lizzie George, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her mother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  146. In the narrative of Marshall Sewell, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  147. In the narrative of Matilda Houston, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  148. In the narrative of Moses Bass, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  149. In the narrative of Nellie Hargrove, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  150. In the narrative of Peter Harris, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his father's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  151. In the narrative of Rilda Freeman, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  152. In the narrative of Robert Brown, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  153. In the narrative of Sarah Riley, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  154. In the narrative of Spencer Williams, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandmother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  155. In the narrative of Susie Warren, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  156. In the narrative of Thomas Jeter, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  157. In the narrative of Viney Simmons, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  158. In the narrative of Walter Jackson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  159. In the narrative of Zettie Wimberly, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  160. In the narrative of William Humphreys, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  161. In the narrative of Albert Wilson, a formerly enslaved man in Mississippi, he talks about his father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  162. In the narrative of Alex Bonds, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  163. In the narrative of Alice Boykin, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  164. In the narrative of Andrew Dunn, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandmother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  165. In the narrative of Annie Wright, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  166. In the narrative of Arnetta Benton, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she describes her father as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  167. In the narrative of Bessie Wiggins, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  168. In the narrative of Chester Hawkins, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  169. In the narrative of Cora Harrison, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  170. In the narrative of Daniel Bowman, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  171. In the narrative of Edith Yarber, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  172. In the narrative of Frank Woods, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his father as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  173. In the narrative of Gertrude Lovelace, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  174. In the narrative of Harry Davis, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandmother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  175. In the narrative of Hattie Banks, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  176. In the narrative of Isaac Johnson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  177. In the narrative of Jennie Gayden, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  178. In the narrative of John Davis, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  179. In the narrative of Lillie Sheppard, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  180. In the narrative of Mack Washington, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  181. In the narrative of Maggie Hudson, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's heritage, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  182. In the narrative of Mary Ragsdale, a formerly enslaved woman in Oklahoma, she describes her grandmother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  183. In the narrative of Matilda Sanders, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her father was "part Choctaw Indian."

  184. In the narrative of Moses Moore, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandmother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  185. In the narrative of Nancy Washington, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her mother as "part Choctaw."

  186. In the narrative of Otis Turner, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandfather was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  187. In the narrative of Phillis George, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  188. In the narrative of Ransom Jones, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his mother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  189. In the narrative of Rena Adams, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandmother was "part Choctaw Indian."

  190. In the narrative of Rufus Boyd, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his mother's heritage, stating that she was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  191. In the narrative of Sallie Meeks, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  192. In the narrative of Samson Lewis, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his grandmother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  193. In the narrative of Sarah Croom, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her mother's ancestry, stating that she was "part Choctaw Indian."

  194. In the narrative of Simon Jackson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his father as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  195. In the narrative of Susie Fox, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she mentions that her grandfather was "part Choctaw Indian."

  196. In the narrative of Thomas Swanson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he talks about his grandfather's heritage, stating that he was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  197. In the narrative of Virginia Davis, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she describes her father as "part Choctaw."

  198. In the narrative of Wally Carr, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he mentions that his mother was "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."

  199. In the narrative of Willie Thomas, a formerly enslaved woman in Mississippi, she talks about her father's ancestry, stating that he was "part Choctaw Indian."

  200. In the narrative of Woodrow Wilson, a formerly enslaved man in Oklahoma, he describes his grandmother as "a full-blooded Choctaw Indian."



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