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Negro de Guinea or Negro de Terra? They are not the SAME

Is your Lineage from the Negroes from Africa or Negroes Indigenous to The Americas? Negro de Guinea or Negro de Terra? They are not the SAME

The Use of the Terms "Negro" and "Black" to Include Persons of Native American Ancestry in "Anglo" North America Jack D. Forbes

The Mexican colonial term "chino" is a referent of Afrodescendant. Dr.Marco Polo Hernandez Cuevas

Apparently unaware of the existence of at least three Spanish language homonyms of "chino" with different significations, times and places of origin, there is a considerable research corpus inaccurately translating as "Chinese" the Mexican colonial name "chino," found in Mexican colonial documents from the late sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. To disentangle the confusion of the linguistic problem outlined, this work tracks the distinct etymologies of "chino" meaning "curly-haired African-First Nations offspring;" and of "chino" as Chinese. The objective is to show that the name "chino" as referent of Afrodescendant derives from "chino," a synonym of "pig.' "It is shown that a homonym of "chino" arose in Philippines as a synonym of Sangley, the Tagalog name of the merchants from Cathay (the Middle Kingdom). Based upon the foregoing, three findings are exposed. First, that the term "chino" in most Mexican colonial documents is not a referent of Chinese, but to Afro-Mexicans. Second, that the word "chino" meaning Chinese, which began to be used generally in nineteenth-century Philippines, applies to the Sangley merchants exclusively. Third, that the ethnically diverse people who entered Mexico via Acapulco were called "chinos" because they were perceived as people with tainted blood.

Mulattos, Quadroons and Octoroons

Some race scientists and public officials believed it was important to know more about groups that were not “pure” white or black. Some scientists believed these groups were less fertile, or otherwise weak; they looked to census data to support their theories.20 From the mid-19th century through 1920, the census race categories included some specific multiracial groups, mainly those that were black and white.

“Mulatto” was a category from 1850 to 1890 and in 1910 and 1920. “Octoroon” and “quadroon” were categories in 1890. Definitions for these groups varied from census to census. In 1870, “mulatto” was defined as including “quadroons, octoroons and all persons having any perceptible trace of African blood.” The instructions to census takers said that “important scientific results” depended on their including people in the right categories. In 1890, a mulatto was defined as someone with “three-eighths to five-eighths black blood,” a quadroon had “one-fourth black blood” and an octoroon had “one-eighth or any trace of black blood.”

The word “Negro” was added in 1900 to replace “colored,” and census officials noted that the new term was increasingly favored “among members of the African race.”22 In 2000, “African American” was added to the census form. In 2013, the bureau announced that because “Negro” was offensive to many, the term would be dropped from census forms and surveys.

Although American Indians were not included in early U.S. censuses, an “Indian” category was added in 1860, but enumerators counted only those American Indians who were considered assimilated (for example, those who settled in or near white communities). The census did not attempt to count the entire American Indian population until 1890.

In some censuses, enumerators were told to categorize American Indians according to the amount of Indian or other blood they had, considered a marker of assimilation.23 In 1900, for example, census takers were told to record the proportion of white blood for each American Indian they enumerated. The 1930 census instructions for enumerators said that people who were white-Indian were to be counted as Indian “except where the percentage of Indian blood is very small, or where he is regarded as a white person by those in the community where he lives.”

First Tribe



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